As one of my Erlang programming exercises, I decided to write the non-graphical part of a Boids simulation. I’ve written the same thing in a few different languages (Java, Ruby, Lisp, C++) before. Using Erlang would be interesting because of its support for message-based parallelism and concurrency.
I figured at first that each bird should run in its own process. In each of my other implementations there is also a flock object. Not necessarily a big-O Object, but at least some central place where the birds are collected that can answer questions about them such as the average velocity of the flock and its center of mass. Even with a multi-process Erlang implementation, it makes sense to have a flock process. Flocking behavior rules depend upon each bird’s knowledge of the position and velocity of all other birds in the flock (more realistically, all other birds it can see). There are two choices: make each bird know about all other birds or have a flock object that can answer questions about all birds. Making each boid (bird) aware of all the others seems to be a bad design decision: it requires O(n^2) communications overhead for every calculation. Each boid has to ask all the others its position and velocity all the time.
With a flock object, the same communications are O(n) because the flock can ask each boid for its position and velocity, and then respond with the aggregate information (average positions, average velocities) when asked.The number of calculations is still O(n^2) because each boid wants to know the average position and velocity excluding itself. It’s the number of messages and the number of connections between processes that is O(n). To reduce the number of calculations to O(n), you could ignore the “excluding itself” qualification.
My first Erlang implementation resulted in a nasty deadlock. The flock periodically messaged each boid, telling it to move. When the boid received the move message, it updated its position and velocity. In order to do that, it had to message the flock, asking for information about the other boids. When that happened, the program hung because the flock not only wasn’t listening for messages, it was still waiting for a response from that boid. Deadlock!
The next version had the flock asking each boid for its location information first, and then telling each boid to move, pasing in the information it needed. This worked, but it was synchronous and definitely not elegant.
Finally, I hit upon a better design: The flock would request position information from each boid periodically, and separately each boid would peroidically tell itself to move, asking the flock for the other boid’s information when it needed it. There is a chance that a boid could have moved while other boids were relying upon it’s old position and velocity cached by the flock, but that’s not really important. In real life birds using old, slightly out-of-date information all the time: they blink, or are distracted by a bug, or are subject to the speed of light’s limitations on information gathering.